Casualties and Warfare Conference
February 17th and 18th, 2006
Sean Aday joined The George Washington University’s School of Media and Public Affairs in 2000, after completing his Ph.D. and a post-doctoral fellowship at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. His work examines the intersection of the press, politics, and public opinion, with a focus on the effects of news about war and politics. Much of his recent work analyzes media coverage of the Iraq War, the effects of casualty coverage, and the interplay of trust, emotion, and public opinion since the September 11th terrorist attacks. Professor Aday’s scholarly articles have appeared in, among other places, the books Media and Conflict in the 21st Century, edited by Phil Seib (2005) and Framing Terrorism, edited by Pippa Norris, Montague Kern and Marion Just (2003). Before entering academia, Aday served as a general assignment reporter and intern for the Kansas City Star, The Milwaukee Journal, and the Greenville News, Greenville, SC.
William M. Arkin, journalist and author of more than ten books on military affairs, is an NBC-TV News military analyst and a consultant to numerous organizations. He was an Army intelligence analyst in West Berlin during the 1970s, a nuclear weapons expert during the Cold War, and pioneered on-the-ground study of the effects of military operations in Iraq, Yugoslavia, and Afghanistan. Mr. Arkin’s latest book is Codenames: Deciphering U.S. Military Plans, Programs, and Operations in the 9/11 World (2005). His Dot.Mil column, launched in November 1998, appeared every other Monday on washingtonpost.com until January 6, 2003. William Arkin also wrote a column for the Los Angeles Times from December 2001 until September 2004.
Deborah Avant is Associate Professor of Political Science and Director of the Institute for Global and International Studies at George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs. Her research (funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Olin Foundation, and the Smith Richardson Foundation, among others) has focused on civil-military relations, military change, and the politics of controlling violence. Her recent research has focused on the privatization of security and has appeared, among other places, in The Market for Force: the Consequences of Privatizing Security (2005). She is also the author of Political Institutions and Military Change: Lessons From Peripheral Wars (1994). Her doctorate is from the University of California at San Diego.
Stephen Biddle has just joined the Council of Foreign Relations as Senior Fellow in Defense Policy. Previously, he held faculty appointments at UNC Chapel Hill and at the U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute (SSI). He has held research positions at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) in Alexandria, Virginia; Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (BCSIA); and the Kennedy School of Government’s Office of National Security Programs. Dr. Biddle has presented testimony before congressional committees on a number of issues, including those relating to Operation IRAQI FREEDOM. He is a member of the Defense Department Senior Advisory Group on Homeland Defense and co-director of the Columbia University Summer Workshop on the Analysis of Military Operations and Strategy (SWAMOS). He is the author of the award-winning, Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle (2004). Dr. Biddle holds a Ph.D. in Public Policy from Harvard University.
William A. Boettcher III is an Associate Professor of Political Science and Public Administration at North Carolina State University. His research focuses on the management of risk in foreign policy decision making and the framing of casualty data. He has published articles in the Journal of Conflict Resolution and Political Psychology and is the author of a recent book — Presidential Risk Behavior in Foreign Policy: Prudence or Peril. He received his Ph.D. in political science from The Ohio State University.
Joseph W. Caddell is Teaching Assistant Professor of History at North Carolina State University, Visiting Lecturer at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and a Fellow of the Triangle Institute for Security Studies. Among the courses he teaches are History of Air Power, the History of Sea Power, American Military History, and The American Civil War. He has also taught for the Department of Defense. His dissertation focused on the development of United States Air Force Tactical Air Power doctrine, 1945-1950. Besides air power, his other primary research interests are in the history of restraints on war, and the evolution of warning intelligence. He has edited three texts for the U.S. Air War College — Nuclear Strategy, The Superpowers, and Arms Control — and written a monograph, Deception 101 – Primer on Deception (2003). His doctorate is from Duke University.
Colonel Lyle Cayce is the Staff Judge Advocate (SJA or senior legal advisor), for the United States Army Infantry Center and Fort Benning, a large training installation in Georgia. From 2000-2001, Colonel Cayce served as the Staff Judge Advocate, Multi-National Division (North) and Task Force Eagle in Tuzla, Bosnia-Herzegovina. As the SJA for the Army’s Third Infantry Division between 2002-2003, he helped develop Rules of Engagement for land forces for Operation Iraqi Freedom. He deployed to Kuwait during Operation Enduring Freedom and served as the Third Division SJA during Operation Iraqi Freedom and the march to Baghdad, providing advice to military commanders regarding complex military targeting decisions and the ROE during and after major combat operations. Colonel Cayce is a member of the Kentucky and American Bar Associations.
Michael D. Cobb is an Assistant Professor of Political Science at North Carolina State University. His current research focuses on how to improve the methodology of surveys, especially those that deal with delicate topics. For example, he is interested in how to measure public casualty sensitivity in the war in Iraq. He has published numerous articles in journals such as The American Journal of Political Science, The Journal of Politics and Political Research Quarterly. He received his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Kathryn McNabb Cochran is a graduate student in the Department of Political Science, specializing in security studies. She did her undergraduate work at Duke where she received her B.A. magna cum laude with distinction. Her undergraduate thesis on the U.S. military’s operational aversion to civilian casualties won the Robert S. Rankin Award in American Government. She is currently working on a paper regarding the impact of civilian casualties on public opinion in the United States in the post-Cold War period. Prior to beginning graduate school, Ms Cochran worked as a legislative assistant for Congressman Steve Buyer in Washington, D.C.
Lindsay Cohn is a graduate student in political science at Duke and a 2006-2007 Olin Fellow at Harvard University. Cohn specializes in civil-military relations, international law and organizations, and political philosophy. She received a B.A. magna cum laude with distinction in Political Science from Duke, where one of her minor concentrations was linguistics. She is currently writing her dissertation on the effects of types of market capitalism on problems of military recruiting and retention. She has taught courses on international law and politics and civil-military relations, at both Duke and the University of Erlanger, Germany. She has authored and co-authored articles and book chapters on civil-military relations, and also has professional experience as a translator (German-English) and text editor for academic publications.
Conrad C. Crane became the Director of the US Army Military History Institute on February 1, 2003. Prior to this, Dr. Crane served in the US military for 26 years and with the Strategic Studies Institute at the US Army War College (2000- 2003). He has authored or edited books and monographs on the Civil War, World War I, World War II, Korea, and Vietnam, and has written and lectured widely on airpower and land power issues. Before leaving SSI he coauthored a prewar study on reconstructing Iraq that influenced Army planners and has attracted much attention from the media. He has participated for many years in the Project on the Means of Intervention under the auspices of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at Harvard. He is now serving as the lead author for a new Army-USMC counterinsurgency manual. He holds a Ph.D. from Stanford University.
Beth Osborne Daponte is a Senior Research Scholar with The Institution for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University and also holds appointments in the School of Management (Program on Non-Profit Organizations) and the Yale Center for International and Area Studies. Trained as a demographer/sociologist, she conducts research in three areas: Bayesian demography, welfare policy, and human rights. In the human rights arena, her research examines the impact of economic sanctions and war on populations, concentrating on Iraq. Her articles have appeared or are forthcoming in numerous scholarly journals and her work has been supported by the National Science Foundation, Joint Centers for Poverty Research, MacArthur Foundation, the Institute for Research on Poverty, the Jewish Healthcare Foundation, the Forbes Fund, Greenpeace International, and the U.S. State Department. She earned her doctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago.
Cori Dauber is Associate Professor of Communication Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where she is a Fellow of the Triangle Institute for Security Studies. She researches the role argument strategies and public debate play in defense and military affairs, especially in public support for military operations. She has published in journals such as Armed Forces and Society, Security Studies, Contemporary Security Policy, and Rhetoric and Public Affairs. Her focus since September 11th has been on the performance of the media in its coverage of the war on terrorism. Her most recent project is Lessons of Desert Storm in the Post-Cold War Military Debate. Professor Dauber runs a blog devoted to media and military studies known as www.rantingprofs.com and earned her doctorate at North Western University.
Alexander B. Downes joined Duke University as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science at Duke University in 2004. Prior to this he held fellowships at the Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University and the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford. Professor Downes specializes in international security with a particular focus on why states attack enemy noncombatants in warfare. He is currently revising a book manuscript in which he argues that the desire to win a war and cost considerations best explain why states target civilians in war. Professor Downes has also published an article (and has a second forthcoming) in the journal Security Studies on the relative efficacy of partition versus negotiated settlements as solutions to ethnic wars. His doctorate is from the University of Chicago.
Robert Entman is J.B. and Maurice C. Shapiro Professor of Media and Public Affairs at George Washington University since January 2006. Prior to this he was on the faculty at North Carolina State University. Among his many books are Democracy Without Citizens: Media and the Decay of American Politics (1989); Media Power Politics (1981); and Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and American Foreign Policy (2004). Professor Entman is also senior author of Mass Media and Reconciliation, a report written in March 1998 for President Clinton’s Initiative on Race and has written many reports on communications policy for the Aspen Institute, the Commission on Radio and Television Policy, the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Telecommunications, and other organizations. He holds a Ph.D. in political science from Yale and an M.P.P. in policy analysis from Berkeley.
Peter Furia is Assistant Professor of Political Science, Wake Forest University. His research and teaching interests include the study of public opinion and comparative foreign policy and survey research methods. He has delivered a number of conference presentations and published many book-reviews and articles. His grants and distinctions include a postdoctoral fellowship at the Mershon Center (2000-2002); a Dissertation Fellowship from the Institute for the Study of World Politics (1999-2000) and a Research Grant from the Spencer Foundation/Princeton University (1999-2000). He is currently working on three longer manuscripts, Never the Same? American National Identity Before and After September 11th; America Through the Eyes of the World; and Inter-Societal Relations. He holds a doctorate from Princeton University.
Richard Garfield is a Professor of Nursing, Coordinator of a WHO/PAHO Nursing Collaborating Center at Columbia University, and Visiting Professor at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He applies the qualitative perspective of community health promotion and the quantitative skills of epidemiology to assess morbidity and mortality changes among civilian groups in humanitarian crises around the world. He has assessed the impact of economic embargoes in Cuba, Haiti, Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Liberia for national governments and UN organizations. He has visited Iraq each year since 1996 to collaborate with UNICEF, the World Food Program, and the Iraqi Ministry of Health. After the 2003 invasion, he worked in Iraq to reactivate the health system throughout the post-war summer. He also participated in research to identify changes in mortality since the war. He is currently assisting the Iraqi Ministry of Health to redesign health worker training and human resource development.
Christopher Gelpi is an Associate Professor of Political Science at Duke University. His primary research interests are the sources of international militarized conflict and strategies for international conflict resolution. He has published works on the role of norms in crisis bargaining, alliances as instruments of control, diversionary wars, deterrence theory, and the influence of the international system on the outbreak of violence. He is the author of The Power of Legitimacy: The Role of Norms in Crisis Bargaining (2003) and co-author (with Peter D. Feaver) of Choosing Your Battles: American Civil-Military Relations and the Use of Force (2004). His recent research looks at American public opinion and the use of force, and examines statistical models for forecasting military conflict. He holds a doctorate from the University of Michigan.
Stephen E. Gent is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Currently in his first year at UNC, Professor Gent teaches courses in international relations and quantitative methods. His main research interests include international conflict, civil conflict and game theory. His dissertation, “The Strategic Dynamics of Military Intervention,” uses formal and quantitative methods to examine how the strategic interaction between potential interveners and domestic actors affects decisions to pursue military intervention in civil conflicts. A chapter of this work received the Stuart A. Bremer Prize for the best paper presented by a graduate student at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Peace Science Society. Professor Gent earned his Ph.D. from the University of Rochester.
Kelly M. Greenhill is Assistant Professor of Government at Wesleyan University and Research Fellow in the International Security and Intrastate Conflict Programs at Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (BCSIA). Her current research focuses on non-traditional coercion, insurgencies (and how to effectively combat them), and barriers to conflict resolution. She also recently completed a book manuscript on the use of population movements as political and military weapons. Dr. Greenhill’s research has appeared in a variety of books and journals and has been supported in part by the Social Science Research Council, the MacArthur Foundation, the Mellon Foundation, and the Eisenhower Foundation. She has served as a consultant to the Ford Foundation and to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), as a defense program analyst for the U.S. Department of Defense, and as an economic policy intern in the Office of Senator John F. Kerry. Dr. Greenhill holds a doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and a C.S.S. in International Management from Harvard University.
Paul Huth is the Director of Research at the Center for International Development and Conflict Management (CIDCM) as well as a professor in the Government and Politics Department at the University of Maryland. Prior to this he was a professor of political science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He is the author of The Democratic Peace and Territorial Conflict in the Twentieth Century (2001) and Standing Your Ground (1996). His forthcoming articles include one on “The Post-War Effects of Civil Conflict” in Alex Mintz and Bruce Russett eds., New Directions for International Relations. His current research focuses on civil wars, with attention to the following questions: when do governments target and kill large numbers of civilians; when do outsides states intervene into civil wars; does intervention contribute to the resolution of civil wars and promote recovery in the post-civil war period; and what are the longer term public health consequences of civil wars for a country’s general population? He earned his Ph.D. in political science from Yale University.
Colin Kahl is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota. His dissertion, entitled “States, Scarcity, and Civil Strife in the Developing World,” explores the causal connections between population growth, environmental degradation, resource scarcity, and violent civil and ethnic conflicts. His areas of interest include international relations theory, international security, civil and ethnic conflict, U.S. foreign policy, and global environmental politics. Colin Kahl received his Ph.D. in political science from Columbia University.
Stathis N. Kalyvas is Arnold Wolfers Professor of Political Science and Director of the Program on Order, Conflict, and Violence. He has also taught at the University of Chicago (2000-2003), New York University (1994-2000), and The Ohio State University (1993). His research has been supported the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation and the United States Institute of Peace. His current research project examines the dynamics of civil war in Vietnam and Colombia and a comparative study of resistance and collaboration in WWII Europe. He has published in English, Greek, French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese and has been awarded the Gregory Luebbert Award for the best article in comparative politics published in 1998-1999. He is the author of the award-winning book, The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe (1996). His latest book, The Logic of Violence in Civil War will be published by Cambridge University Press in April 2006. His doctorate is from the University of Chicago.
Helen Kinsella is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her dissertation which won the 2004 Helen Dwight Reid Award is entitled the “The Image Before the Weapon:” A Genealogy of the ‘Civilian’ in International Law and Politics.” It traces the emergence and codification of the distinction between civilian and combatant, now known as the principle of discrimination, from the medieval chivalric codes to the positive law of the 20th century. She is also a scholar of the Center for Advanced Feminist Studies and the MacArthur Program on Interdisciplinary Change and Cooperation at the University of Minnesota. She was a Fellow at CISAC at Stanford University (2004-2005) and received her doctorate from the University of Minnesota.
Richard H. Kohn is Professor of History and Chair of the Curriculum in Peace, War, and Defense at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Before joining the faculty at UNC, Professor Kohn served in a number of academic positions, including as the Chief of Air Force History for the USAF (1981-1991). A specialist in American military history and civil-military relations, his work has focused on issues of U.S. military policy and civilian control of the military. He and Peter Feaver were co-directors of a study of military culture and its divergence from civilian society, the findings of which were published in Soldiers and Civilians: The Civil-Military Gap and American National Security (MIT Press, 2001). His current project is a book analyzing the challenges of successful war leadership by U.S. presidents over the course of American history. His Ph.D. is from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Alan J. Kuperman is Assistant Professor at the LBJ School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. He is author of one book, The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda (2001), and co-editor of Gambling on Humanitarian Intervention: Moral Hazard, Rebellion and Civil War (2006) and a number of articles and book chapters. He holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from MIT (2002) and has received fellowships from Harvard University, MIT, the University of Southern California, the U.S. Institute of Peace, the Brookings Institution, and the Institute for the Study of World Politics. Prior to his academic career, he worked as legislative director to Congressman Charles Schumer and legislative assistant to Speaker of the House Tom Foley.
Sarah Kenyon Lischer is an Assistant Professor of Political Science at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, NC. She is the author of Dangerous Sanctuaries: Refugee Camps, Civil War, and the Dilemmas of Humanitarian Aid (2005). She has published on the topics of humanitarian aid, military intervention, and NGOs and has been awarded fellowships by Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, the Institute for the Study of World Politics and the Academic Council for the United Nations System. Dr. Lischer received her Ph.D from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Lt. Col. Renée Richardson (USAF) is currently stationed at HQ Space Command. In eighteen years of service, Lt. Col. Richardson has held various positions in the intelligence and contracting fields. In 2000, she deployed to the Balkan region to work for the North American Treaty Organization’s Kosovo Headquarters; this led to an interest in both the region and nation building. Prior to her current assignment, Lt. Col. Richardson was awarded a three-year doctoral fellowship from the military. She earned her Master’s degree from Duke University and is now completing her dissertation, which looks at factors (including noncombatant casualties) that affect support of military intervention.
Brendan Nyhan is a graduate student in the Department of Political Science at Duke University. From 2001-2004, Ben Fritz, Bryan Keefer and Mr. Nyhan co-edited Spinsanity, a highly regarded watchdog of political spin that was syndicated in Salon in 2002 and the Philadelphia Inquirer in 2004. In addition, they wrote All the President’s Spin, a New York Times bestseller that was chosen as one of the ten best political books of 2004 by Amazon.com. Before enrolling at Duke in 2003, he managed new projects, marketing, and fundraising for Benetech, a Silicon Valley technology nonprofit. In 2000, he served as the Deputy Communications Director for the Bernstein for US Senate campaign in Nevada. He is a graduate of Swarthmore College.
Alex Roland is a Professor of History at Duke University and Acting Director of the Triangle Institute for Security Studies. He served in the United States Marine Corps (1966 – 1970). Between 1973 and 1981 he was the Historian at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and from 1988-1989 he was a Professor of Military History at the Military History Institute, U.S. Army War College. Professor Roland’s research and writing focus on military history and the history of technology. His recent publications include (with Philip Shiman) Strategic Computing: DARPA and the Quest for Machine Intelligence, 1983-1993 ( 2002); The Military-industrial Complex (2001); (edited with Peter Galison); Atmospheric Flight in the Twentieth Century (2001); and the introduction to the 2000 edition of Theodore Ropp’s War in the Modern World. His doctorate is from Duke University.
Kristin Thompson Sharp is a graduate student in the Department of Political Science, specializing in national security and civil-military relations. She recently co-authored a book chapter entitled, “The Ultimate Balancing Act,” which summarizes the trends in U.S. nuclear history as they related to democratic governance of nuclear weapons (forthcoming). She is in the process of co-authoring an overview of the impact of American foreign policy on US presidential elections. Before beginning graduate school, Ms. Sharp worked on the political campaigns of Senator Debbie Stabenow and Vice-President Al Gore. She then joined the Washington DC office of the Center for Nonproliferation Studies as a Herbert Scoville Jr. Peace Fellow.
Benjamin Valentino is currently an Assistant Professor of Government at Dartmouth College. His work focuses on international security, especially the use of violence against civilian populations. Previously, he has held appointments including: Research Associate at Stanford’s Center for International Security and Cooperation, Lecturer in the Department of Political Science at Stanford University, Postdoctoral Fellow at the John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University, and Research Associate at the Center for Basic Research in the Social Sciences at Harvard University. Dr. Valentino holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from The Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Camber Warren is a graduate student in the Department of Political Science at Duke University. He specializes in international security, international diplomacy, civil conflict, ethnic politics, statistical methods, and computational modeling. He received a B.A. magna cum laude with honors from the University of Rochester in Political Science with a concentration in political philosophy. He has taught courses on ethnic identity and guerilla warfare, and he is currently writing his dissertation on the effects of mass media network structures on the mobilization of armed conflict.